(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "apple :: apple I :: AppleI Manual"

-1 

OPERATION 

MANUAL 



APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY 
770 Welch Road 
Palo Alto, Calif. 94304 



SPECIFICATIONS 



MICROPROCESSOR: 

Microprocessor Clock Frequency: 

Effective Cycle Frequency: 
(Including Refresh Waits) 



MOS TECHNOLOGY 6502 
1.023 MHz 
0.960 MHz 



VIDEO OUTPUT: 

Line Rate: 
Frame Rate: 
Format: 

Display Memory: 
Character Matrix: 



Composite positive video, 75 ohms, 
level adjustable between zero and +5Vpp. 

15734 Hz 

60.05 Hz 

40 characters/line, 24 lines; 
with automatic scrolling 

Dynamic shift registers (IK x 7) 

5x7 



RAM MEMORY: 

On-board RAM Capacity: 



16-pin, 4K Dynamic, type 4096 (2104) 
8K bytes (4K supplied) 



POWER SUPPLIES: 



Input Power Requirements: 



Recommended Transformers; 



+5 Volts @ 3 amps, +/- 12 Volts @0.5 amps, 
and -5 Volts @ 0.5 amps 

8 to 10 Volts AC (RMS) @ 3 amps, 

26 to 28 Volts AC (RMS) Center-Tapped, lA, 

Stancor # P-8380 or Triad F31-X 
Stancor # P-8667 or Triad F40-X 



APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY 

770 Welch Road, Suite 154 

Palo Alto, California 94304 

Phone: (415) 326-4248 



INTRODUCTION 



The Apple Computer is a complete micro- 
processor system, consisting of a Mos Technology 
6502 microprocessor and support hardware, in- 
tegral video display electronics, dynamic memory 
and refresh hardware, and fully regulated power 
supplies. It contains resident system monitor 
software, enabling the user, via the keyboard 
and display, to write, examine, debug, and run 
programs efficiently; thus being an educational 
tool for the learning of microprocessor program- 
ming, and an aid in the development of software. 



plied), although static memory may also be used. 
All refreshing of dynamic memory, including all 
"off-board" expansion memory, is done auto- 
matically. The entire system timing, including 
the microprocessor clock and all video signals, 
originates in a single crystal oscillator. 

Further, the printed circuit board contains 
a "breadboard area", in which the user can add 
additional "on-board" hardware (for example, 
extra PIA's, ACIA's, EROM's, and soon). 



The integral video display section and the 
keyboard interface renders unnecessary the need 
for an external teletype. The display section con- 
tains its own memory, leaving all of RAM for user 
programs, and the output format is 40 characters/ 
line, 24 lines /page, with auto scrolling. Almost 
any ASCII encoded keyboard will interface directly 
with the Apple system. 

The board has sockets for upto 8K bytes 
of the 16 pin, 4K type, RAM, and the system is 
fully expandable to 65K via the edge connector. 
The system uses dynamic memory {4K bytes sup— 



This manual is divided into three Sections: 

Section I GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING. 
Section II USING THE SYSTEM MONITOR. 

(listing included) 
Section III EXPANDING THE SYSTEM. 

Please readSection I thoroughly, before at- 
tempting to "power-up" your system, and study 
Section III carefully before attempting to expand 
your system. In addition to this manual, Apple 
"Tech Notes" are available which contain exam- 
ples of expansion hardware and techniques. 



SECTION I 
GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING 



The Apple Computer is fully assembled, 
tested, and burned in. The only external devices 
necessary for operation of the system are: An 
ASCII encoded keyboard, a video display monitor, 
and AC power sources of 8 to 10 Volts (RMS) @3 
amps and28Volts (RMS) @1 amp. The following three 
articles describe the attachment of these devices 
in detail. 

Keyboard: 

Any ASCII encoded keyboard, with positive 
DATA outputs, interfaces directly with the Apple 
system via a "DIP" connector. If your keyboard 
has negative logic DATA outputs (rare), you can 
install inverters (7404) in the breadboard area. 
The strobe can be either positive or negative, of 
long or short duration. The "DIP" keyboard con- 
nector (B4) has inputs for seven DATA lines, one 



STROBE line, and two normally-open pushbutton 
switches, used for RESET (enter monitor), and 
CLEAR SCREEN (see schematic diagram, sheet 
3 of 3, for exact circuitry). This keyboard con- 
nector also supplies three voltages, (+5V, +12V, 
and -12V) of which one or more may be necessary 
to operate the keyboard. Pin 15 of the keyboard 
connector (B4) must be tied to +5V (pin l6) for 
normal operation. 

NOTE: The system monitor accepts only upper- 
case alpha (A-F, R). 

It is therefore convenient, though it's not 
essential, to have a keyboard equipped with upper- 
case alpha lock (usually in the electronics) . Either 
of the following suggested circuits may be used 
to provide alpha lock capability, if needed, and 
can be built in the breadboard area. 



B6 
FROM 



KEYBOARD r ^ 



^5B>^ 



87- 



pE>^ 



■^B6 TO KBD 

CONNECTOR 
♦ 87 (84) 




uE)^ 



-►86 



TO KBD 
CONNECTOR 
(84) 
^87 



-1- 



Display: 

The Apple Computer outputs a composite 
video signal (composite of sync and video infor- 
mation) which can be applied to any standard 
raster-scan type video display monitor. The out- 
put level is adjustable with the potentiometer 
located near the video output Molex connector, J2, 
The additional two outside pins on the Molex con- 
nector supply +5and+12 volts, to be used in future 
Apple accessories. The composite video signal 
can also be modulated at the proper RF frequency, 
with an inexpensive commercially available device , 
and applied to the antenna terminals of a home 
television receiver. Since the character format 
is 40 characters / line, all television receivers 
will have the necessary bandwidth to display the 
entire 40 characters. Two large manufacturers 
of video display monitors, which connect directly 
with the Apple Computer, are Motorola and Ball. 
The mating four— pin Molex connector is provided. 



equivalent { 28VCT at 1 amp). Simply wire the 
secondaries to the mating six-pin Molex connector 
supplied, and wire the primaries in parallel, as 
shown in the schematic diagram (power supply 
section, Dwg.No. 00101, sheet 3 of 3. 

TEST PROGRAM 

After attaching the keyboard, display, and 
AC power sources, you can try a simple program 
to test if your system and the attachments are 
functioning together properly. While it does not 
test many possible areas of the microprocessor 
system, the test program will test for the correct 
attachment of the keyboard, display, and power 
supplies. 

FIRST: 

Hit the RESET button to enter the system 
iTLonitor. A backslash should be displayed, 
and the cursor should drop to the next line. 



AC Power Sources: 

Two incoming AC power sources are re- 
quired for operation: 8 to 10 VAC (RMS) at 3 amps, 
and 28 VAC (RMS) Center-Tapped at lamp. These 
AC supplies enter the system at the Molex con- 
nector, Jl. The 8 to 10 volts AC provides the raw 
AC for the +5 volt supply, while the 28 VCT sup- 
plies the raw AC for the +12 and —12 volt supplies, 
and the -5V supply is derived from the -12V reg- 
ulated output. 

The board, as supplied, requires no more 
than 1. 5 amps DC from the +5V supply, while the 
regulator is capable of supplying 3 amps. The 
remaining 1.5 amps DC fronn the +5V supply is 
available for user hardware expansion (provided 
suitable transformer ratings are employed). 

A suitable source of the raw AC voltages 
required, are two commercially available trans- 
formers; Stancor P/N P-8380 or equivalent (8 to 
10 volts at 3 amps), and Stancor P/N P-8667 or 



SECOND: 

Type- (K : A9 b b AA b 2(? b EF b FF b 

E8 b 8A b 4C b 2 b g( (RET) 

(^ is a zero, NOT an alpha "O"; b means 

blank or space; and (RET) hit the "return" 

key on the keyboard) 

THIRD: 

Type- ^ . A (RET) 

(This should print out, on the display, the 

program you have just entered. ) 

FOURTH: 

Type- R(RET) 

(R means run the program.) 

THE PROGRAM SHOULD THEN PRINT 
OUT ON THE DISPLAY A CONTINUOUS STREAM 
OF ASCII CHARACTERS. TO STOP THE PRO- 
GRAM AND RETURN TO THE SYSTEM MONITOR, 
HIT THE "RESET" BUTTON. TO RUN AGAIN, 
TYPE : R (RET). 



-2- 



I SECTION II USING THE SYSTEM MQNIT0R| 



The Hex Monitor is a PROM program in 
locations FFOf^toFFFF (hex) which uses the key- 
board and display to perform the front panel func- 
tions of examining nnemory, and running programs . 
The monitor program is entered by hitting (RESET), 
which displays backslash - return. A backslash 
alone (cursor remains on same line as backslash) 
indicates bad page RAM. 

Commands are typed on a "line-at-a-time" 
basis with editing. Each line may consist of any 
number of commands (up to 1 28 characters) . None 
are executed until (RETURN) is typed. The 
(SHIFT-0) (backarrow) backspaces and echos an 
underline. The (ESC) cnacels a line and echos 
backslash-return. 

One or more hexadecimal digits (0-9, A-F) 
are used for address and data values. Addresses 
use the four least significant digits of a group, and 
data values, the two least significant digits. The 
following examples illustrate the variety of ac- 
ceptable commands: 



1. Opening a location (examining the contents 

of a single address). 

USER TYPES/ 4F (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ (?04F: (2lF (contents 

of 4F) 

Z. Examining a block; frorathe last examined 

location, to a specified one. 

USER TYPES/ . 5A (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 

0(^S0: (2(0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 

0058: 08 09 0A 

Note: 4F is still considered the most recently 
opened location. 

3. Combining examiples 1 and 2 to print a 

block of memory in a single command. 

USER TYPES/ 4F. 5A (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 

0050: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 

0058: 08 09 0A 

Note: Only the first location of the block (4F) 
is considered "opened". 



Note: 



6. 



Note: 



9. 



56 is considered the most recently "opened" 
location. The "b" is a blank or comma, 
and is a delimiter for separation purposes 
only. A string of delimiters has the same 
effect as a single one (bbb is as effective 
as b). 

Exainining several blocks of memory at 
once. 

USER TYPES/ 4F. 52 b 56 b 58. 5A 
(RET) 



MONITOR TYPES/ 004F 
0050 
0056 
0058 



0F 

00 01 02 

06 

08 09 0A 



Note: 58 is considered themiost recently "opened" 
location. Refer to example 2. 



Examining successive blocks. 

USER TYPES/ 4F. 52 (RET) 



MONITOR TYPES/ 

USER TYPES/ 
MONITOR TYPES/ 

USER TYPES/ 
MONITOR TYPES/ 



004F: 0F 
0050: 00 01 02 
. 55 (RET) 
0053: 03 04 05 
. 5A (RET) 
0056: 06 07 
0058: 08 09 0A 



Depositing data in a single location. 
USER TYPES/ 30: A0 (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 0030: FF (prior 

contents) 

Location 30 is considered opened and now 
contains 30. 

Depositing data in successive locations 
from that last used in a deposit command. 
USER TYPES/ : Al b A2 b A3 b A4 
b A5 (RET) 
(This deposits Al in location 31, A2 in 32, 
and so on. ) 

Combining examples 7 and 8 in a single 
command. 

USER TYPES/ 30: A0 b Al b A2 b 
A3 b A4 b A5 (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 

0030: FF (prior contents of location 30) 



Examining several 
once. 

USER TYPES/ 
MONITOR TYPES/ 



individual locations at 

4F b 52 b 56 (RET) 
004F: 0F 
0052: 02 
0056: 06 



10. Depositing data in successive locations with 

separate commands. 



USER TYPES/ 

MONITOR TYPES/ 

USER TYPES/ 

USER TYPES/ 



30: A0 b Al (RET) 
0030: FF 
:A2 b A3 (RET) 
:A4 b A5 (RET) 



NOTE: Capital letters enclosed in parenthesis represent single keystrokes. 
Example: (RET) means hit the "return" key. 

-3- 



Note: A colon in a command means "start de- 
positing data from the most recently de- 
posited location, or if none, then from the 
nnost recently opened one, 

11. Examining a block, then depositing into it. 

USER TYPES/ 30.35 (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 

0030: Aa Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 

USER TYPES/ 

:B0 b Bl b B2 b B3 b B4 b B5 (RET) 

Note: New data deposited beginning at most re- 
cently opened location (30) 

12. Run a program at a specified address. 

USER TYPES/ 10F0 R (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 10F0: A9 (contents) 

Note: The cursor is left immediately to the right 
of the "A9"; it is not returned to the next 
line. 

13. Run at the most recently examined location. 

USER TYPES/ 10F0 (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 10F0: A9 
USER TYPES/ R (RET) 

14. Enter a program into memory and run it 
in one line. 

USER TYPES/ 

40: A9 b b 20 b EF b FF b 38 b 69 b 
b 4C b 40 b R (RET) 
MONITOR TYPES/ 40: FF (prior con- 
tents of 40) 



MONITOR TYPES/ 



40: FF (prior con- 
tents of 40) 



15. An "on line" error correction. 

USER TYPES/ 

40: Al b A2 b A3A4A5A6 b A7 
(data A6 will be loaded in location 42) 

USER TYPES/ 40506070: AA 
(data AA will be loaded in location 6070) 

16. Useful routines in monitor which can be 
accessed by user programs. 
GETLINE: location FFIF: 

monitor entry point 
(jumping to FFIF will enter monitor 
and echo carriage return. You can 
then examine memory locations with 
the monitor. ) 

ECHO: location FFEF: 

prints one byte (ASCII) 
(data from "A" (accumulator), con- 
tents of "A" not disturbed. Exannple: 
20 b EF b FF (JRS ECHO)). 



PRBYTE 



location FFDC: 
prints one byte (HEX) 

(data from "A", contents of "A" 

turbed. ) 



dis- 



PRHEX: location FFE5: 

prints one hex digit 
(data from four least significant bits 
of "A", contents of "A" disturbed.) 



NOTE: RAM locations 0024 to 002B are used as index 
pointers by the monitor, and are invalid for user use, 
when using monitor. Also, locations 0200 to 027F are 
used as input buffer storage, and are also invalid for 
user use when using the monitor. 



"4- 



6502 HEX MONITOR LISTING 



FF00 


D8 


RESET 


CLD 


FF0I 


58 




CLI 


FFC(2 


A0 7F 




LDY #$7F 


FF04 


8C 12 D(? 




STY DSP 


FF07 


A9 A7 




LDA #$A7 


FF09 


8D 11 D0 




STA KBD CR 


FFgfC 


8D 13 Dg( 




STA DSP CR 


FF0F 


C9 DF 


NOTCR 


CMP #$DF 


FFll 


F0 13 




BEQ BACKSPACE 


FF13 


C9 9B 




CMP #$9B 


FF15 


FOf 03 




BEQ ESCAPE 


FFI7 


C8 




INY 


FF18 


10 0F 




BPL NEXTCHAR 


FFIA 


A9 DC 


ESCAPE 


LDA #$DC 


FFIC 


20 EF FF 




JSR ECHO 


FFIF 


A9 8D 


GET LINE 


LDA #$8D 


FF21 


20 EF FF 




JSR ECHO 


FF24 


A0 01 




LDY #$01 


FF26 


88 


BACKSPACE 


DEY 


FF27 


30 F6 




BMI GETLINE 


FF29 


AD 11 D0 


NEXTCHAR 


LDA KBD CR 


FF2C 


10 FB 




BPL NEXTCHAR 


FF2E 


AD 10 D0 




LDA KBD 


FF31 


99 00 02 




STA IN, Y 


FF34 


20 EF FF 




JSR ECHO 


FF37 


C9 8D 




CMP #$8D 


FF39 


D0 D4 




BNE NOTCR 


FF3B 


A0 FF 




LDY #$FF 


FF3D 


A9 00 




LDA #$00 


FF3F 


AA 




TAX 


FF4a 


0A 


SETSTOR 


ASL 


FF41 


85 2B 


SETMODE 


STA MODE 


FF43 


C8 


BLSKIP 


INY 


FF44 


B9 00 02 


NEXT ITEM 


LDA IN, Y 


FF47 


C9 8D 




CMP #$8D 


FF49 


F0 D4 




BEQ GETLINE 


FF4B 


C9 AE 




CMP #$AE 


FF4D 


90 F4 




BCC BLSKIP 


FF4F 


F0 F0 




BEQ SETMODE 


FF51 


C9 BA 




CMP #$BA 


FF53 


F0 EB 




BEQ SETSTOR 


FF55 


C9 D2 




CMP #$D2 


FF57 


F0 3B 




BEQ RUN 


FF59 


86 28 




STX L 


FF5B 


86 29 




STX H 


FF5D 


84 2A 




STY YSAV 


FF5F 


B9 00 02 


NEXTHEX 


LDA IN, Y 


FF62 


49 B0 




FOR #$B0 


FF64 


C9 0A 




CMP #$0A 


FF66 


90 06 




BCC DIG 


FF68 


69 88 




ADC #$88 


FF6A 


C9 FA 




CMP #$FA 


FF6C 


90 11 




BCC NOTHEX 


FF6E 


0A 


DIG 


ASL 


FF6F 


0A 




ASL 


FF70 


0A 




ASL 


FF71 


0A 




ASL 


FF72 


A2 04 




LDX #$04 


FF74 


0A 


HEXSHIFT 


ASL 



Clear decimal arithmetic mode. 

Mask for DSP data direction register. 
Set it up. 

KBD and DSP control register mask. 
Enable interrupts, setCAl, CBl, for 
positive edge sense/output mode. 

Yes. 

ESC? 

Yes. 

Advance text index. 

Auto ESC if > 127. 
fi \ ti 

Output it. 

CR. 

Output it. 

Initiallize text index. 

Backup text index. 

Beyond start of line, reinitialize. 

Key ready? 

Loop until ready. 

Load character. B7 should be '1'. 

Add to text buffer. 

Display character. 

CR? 

No. 

Reset text index. 

For XAM mode. 

0-^X. 

Leaves $7B if setting STOR mode. 

$00 = XAM, $7B = STOR, $AE = BLOK XAM 

Advance text index. 

Get characte r. 

CR? 

Yes, done this line. 

" . " ? 

Skip delimiter. 

Set BLOCK XAM mode. 

Yes, set STOR mode. 
"R"? 

Yes, run user program. 
$00-*-L. 
and H. 
Save Y for comparison. 
Get character for hex test. 
Map digits to $0-9. 
Digit? 
Yes. 

Map letter "A"-"F" to $FA-FF. 
Hex letter? 
No, character not hex. 

Hex digit to MSD of A. 



Shift count. 

Hex digit left, MSB to carry, 



-5- 



6502 HEX MONITOR LISTING (continued) 



FF75 

FF77 

FF79 

FF7A 

FF7C 

FF7D 

FF7F 

FF81 

FF83 

FF85 

FF87 

FF89 

FF8B 

FF8D 

FF8F 

FF91 

FF94 

FF97 

FF99 

FF9B 

FF9D 

FF9F 

FFAl 

FFAZ 

FFA4 

FFA6 

FFA8 

FFAB 

FFAD 

FFB(2( 

FFB2 

FFB5 

FFB7 

FFBA 

FFBC 

FFBF 

FFCl 

FFC4 

FFC7 

FFC8 

FFCA 

FFCC 

FFCE 

FFDI? 

FFD2 

FFD4 

FFD6 

FFD8 

FFDA 

FFDC 

FFDD 

FFDE 

FFDF 

FFE0 

FFEl 

FFE4 

FFE5 

FEE 7 

FFE9 



26 28 

26 29 

CA 

D0 F8 

C8 

DO E^ 

C4 2A 

FQI 97 

24 2B 

50 l^ 

A5 28 

81 26 

E6 26 

DQf B5 

E6 27 

4C 44 FF 

6C 24 00 

30 2B 

A2 02 

B5 27 

95 25 

95 23 

CA 

B0 F7 

D0 14 

A9 8D 

20 EF FF 

A5 25 

20 DC FF 

A5 24 

20 DC FF 

A9 BA 

20 EF FF 

A9 A^f 

20 EF FF 

Al 24 

20 DC FF 

86 2B 

A5 24 

,C5 28 

A5 25 

E5 29 

B0 CI 

E6 24 

Da 02 

E6 25 

A5 24 

29 07 

\0 C8 

48 

4A 

4A 

4A 

4A 

20 E5 FF 

68 

29 0F 

09 B0 

C9 BA 



NOTHEX 



TONEXTITEM 

RUN 

NOTSTOR 

SETADR 



NXTPRNT 



PRDATA 



XAMNEXT 



MOD8CHK 



PRBYTE 



PRHEX 



ROL L 
ROL H 

DEX 

BNE HEXSHIFT 

INY 

BNE NEXTHEX 

CPY YSAV 

BEQ ESCAPE 

BIT MODE 

BVC NOTSTOR 

LDA L 

STA (STL, X) 

INC STL 

BNE NEXTITEM 

INC STH 

JMP NEXTITEM 

JMP (XAML) 

BMI XAMNEXT 

LDX #$02 

LDA L-1,X 

STA STL-1, X 

STA XAML-1, X 

DEX 

BNE SETADR 

BNE PRDATA 

LDA #$8D 

JSR ECHO 

LDA XAMH 

JSR PRBYTE 

LDA XAML 

JSR PRBYTE 

LDA #$BA 

JSR ECHO 

LDA #$Aa 

JSR ECHO 

LDA {XAML, X) 

JSR PRBYTE 

STX MODE 

LDA XAML 

CMP L 

LDA XAMH 

SBC H 

BCS TONEXTITEM 

INC XAML 

BNE MOD8CHK 

INC XAMH 

LDA XAML 

AND #$07 

BPL NXTPRNT 

PHA 

LSR 

LSR 

LSR 

LSR 

JSR PRHEX 

PLA 

AND #$0F 

ORA #$Bgf 

CMP #$BA 



Rotate into LSD. 

Rotate into MSD's. 

Done 4 shifts ? 

No, loop. 

Advence text index. 

Always taken. Check next character for hex. 

Check if L, H empty (no hex digits). 

Yes, generate ESC sequence. 

Test MODE byte. 

B6= for STOR, 1 for XAM and BLOCK XAM 

LSD's of hex data. 

Store at current 'store index'. 

Increment store index. 

Get next item, (no carry). 

Add carry to 'store index' high order. 

Get next command item. 

Run at current XAM index. 

B7 = for XAM, 1 for BLOCK XAM. 

Byte count. 

Copy hex data to 

'store index'. 
And to 'XAM index'. 
Next of 2 bytes. 
Loop unless X = 0, 
NE means no address to print. 
CR. 

Output it, 

'Examine index' high-order byte. 
Output it in hex format. 
Low-order 'examine index' byte. 
Output it in hex format. 

M. tl 

Output it. 

Blank. 

Output it. 

Get data byte at 'examine index'. 

Output it in hex format. 

^(-►MODE (XAM mode). 

Compare 'exannine index' to hex data. 



Not less, so no more data to output. 



Increment 'examine index' 



Check low-order 

For MOD 8=0 
Always taken. 
Save A for LSD. 



MSD to LSD position. 

Output hex digit. 

Restore A. 

Mask LSD for hex print. 

Add "0". 

Digit? 



examine index' byte 



-6- 



6502 HEX MONITOR LISTING (continued) 



FFEB 


9«i n 


FFED 


69 06 


FFEF 


2C 12 D(2( E 


FFF2 


30 FB 


FFF4 


8D 12 D0 


FFF7 


60 


FFF8 


00 00 (unused) 


FFFA 


00 0F (NMI) 


FFFC 


00 FF (RESET) 


FFFE 


00 00 (IRQ) 



ECHO 



BCC ECHO 
ADC #$06 
BIT DSP 
BMI ECHO 
STA DSP 
RTS 



Yes, output it. 

Add offset for letter. 

DA bit (B7) cleared yet? 

No, wait for display. 

Output character. Sets DA, 

Return. 



HARDWARE NOTES 



Page Variables 

XAML 24 

XAMH 25 

STL 26 

STH 27 

L 28 

H 29 

YSAV 2A 

MODE 2B 



Other Variables 



IN 


200-2 


KBD 


D010 


KBD CR 


D011 


DSP 


D012 


DSP CR 


D013 



PIA 



KBD/DSP Interface 





Bl 




B2 


KBD 


B3 


\SCII 1 


B4 


Data 


B5 




B6 




B7 



+5 



KBD STROBE 



Reset 



PA0 D0-D7 
PAl RS0 



dz 



PA2 
PA 3 
PA4 
PA5 
PA6 
PA7 



RES 



RSI 
CS0 
CSl 
CS2 

E 

Vc 

Vss 



CAl R/W 



CBl 
CB2 

PB7 

PB6 
PB5 
PB4 
PB3 
PB2 
PBl 
PB0 



i^DATA BUS 

- A0 

- Al 

- A4 



+ 

Decode A15, A14, A13, A12 to $DXXX 

rt9 



02 
•+5 



.R/W 



■> 



■►B6 

-►B5 



■►B4 
-►B3 



■►B2 
-►Bl 
-►B0 



PIA 
6820 



One Shot 
(3.5 usee) 



RDA (UART style) 
(from display) 



^DA (UART style) 
(to display) 



ASCII to display 



-7- 



SECTION III 
HOW TO EXPAND THE APPLE SYSTEM 



The Apple system can be expanded to in- 
clude more memory and lO devices, via a 44-pin 
edge connector. The system is fully expandable 
to 65K, with the entire data and address busses, 
clocks, control signals ( i. e. IRQ, NMI, DMA, 
RDY, etc.), and power sources available at the 
connector. All address lines are TTL buffered, 
and data lines can drive ten equivalent capacitive 
loads (one TTL load and 130pf) without external 
buffers. All clock signals are TTL. The Apple 
system runs at approxinnately 1 MHz { see spec 
sheet) and is fully compatible with 6800/6500 style 
timing. 

Three power sources are available at the 
edge connector: +5 volts regulated, and raw DC 
(approximately +/- 14V) for the +12V, -12V, and 
-5V supplies. If +12V, -12V, or -5V supplies are 
required, EXTERNAL REGULATORS MUST BE 
USED. An excess of 1.5 amps from the "on- 
board" regulated +-5V supply is available for ex- 
pansion (assuming suitable transformer ratings 
are employed). Exercise great care in the handling 
of the raw DC, as no short-circuit protection is 
provided. 



REFRESH: 

Four out of every 65 clock cycles is dedi- 
cated to memory refresh. At the start of a re- 
fresh cycle (150 ns after leading edge of Qll), RF 
goes low, and remains low for one clock cycle. 
02 is inhibited during a refresh cycle, and the 
processor is held in 01 (it's inactive state). Dy- 
namic mennories, which must clock during refresh 
cycles, should derive their clock fromi 00, which 
is equivalent to 02, except that it continues during 
a refresh cycle. Devices, such as PIA's, will not 
be affected by a refresh cycle, since they react to 
02 only. Refer to Apple "Tech Notes" for a variety 
of interfacing examples. 



DMA: 

The Apple system has full DMA capability. 
For DMA, the DMA control line tri - states the 
address buss, thus allowing external devices to 
control the buss. Consult MOS TECHNOLOGY 
6502 Hardware Manual for details. (For DMA use, 
the solder jumper on the board, marked "DMA", 
nnust be broken. ) 

For the 6502 microprocessor, the RDY 
line is used to halt the processor for single step- 
ping, or slow ROM applications. Refer to Apple 
"Tech Notes" for examiples. 

SOFTWARE CONSIDERATIONS: 

The sequences listed below are the routines 
used to read the keyboard or output to the display. 

Read Key from KBD: 

^LDA KBD CR (D011) 
V BPL 
LDA KBD DATA (D010) 

Output to Display: 

^fBIT DSP (D012) 
^BPL 
STA DSP (D012) 

PIA Internal Registers: 

KBD Data D010 

High order bit equals 1. 

KBD Control Reg. D011 

High order bit indicates "key ready". 
Reading key clears flag. Rising 
edge of KBD sets flag. 

DSP DATA D012 

Lower seven bits are data output, 
high order bit is "display ready" 
input (1 equals ready, equals busy) 



DSP Control Reg. D013 



8- 



105-125 VAC 60 Hz 
POWER SOURCE 



STANCOR P-8380 
(or equiv) 



(N0TEI5) 
HEATSINK TAB= -V, 




LM320 MP-5 



X 



HEATSINK =SND 






J3 



■>f^ 



HEATStNK TAB= -I5V Nom. 



-^ 



STANCOR P-8667 
(or equiv) 



z 



2400 
25V 



LM320MP-I2 









HEATSINK TAB=GND 






2400 
25V 



5 



1 


RF 


■^ A 


02 


2 


RES 


^ B~ 


BA 


3 


NMl 


-C c 


VMA 


4 


IRQ 


<r D 


(fl 


5 


ROY 


< E 


D7 


6 


06 


•^^P 


D5 


7 


D4 


^ H 


D3 


8 


D2 


<7 J 


Dl 


9 


D0 


^ K 


R/W 


\0 


DMA 


^ L 


R 


II 


S 


< M 


00 


12 


AI5 


^ N 


Ai4 


13 


AI3 


^ P 


AI2 


14 


All/5 


<[ R 


A 10/4 


15 


A9/3 


^_S 


A8/2 


16 


A7/I 


<"f 


A6/B 


17 


A5 


P-'^u"" 


A4 


18 


A3 


^ V 


A2 


19 


Al 


^ w 


Aiy 


20 


GND 


^ X 


GND 


21 


T 


^ Y 


+I2V 


22 


+5V 


< z 


-I2V 



+ 5V 

VIDEO OUT 
GND 
+ I2V 




5V 



•12V 



■CLEAR SCREEN {B4-I2) 
►RESET tB4-l) 



REVISIONS 



INITIALS M\ UATK 



URFTC CHI-rK tNCRG 



NOTES: (continued from sheet 2/3) 

14. Tl EQUIVALENT TRANSFORMER SHALL 
BE 8 TO 10 VOLT SECONDARY, WITH 

3 AMP MINIMUM CURRENT RATING. 
T2 EQUIVALENT TRANSFORMER SHALL 
BE 28 VOLT SECONDARY, CENTER- 
TAPPED, WITH 1 AMP MINIMUM RATING. 

15. CASE OF REGULATOR, LM323, AND HEAT 
SINK TABS OF REMAINING THREE REG- 
ULATORS ARE ALL AT DIFFERENT 
ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS. CAUTION 
SHOULD BE EXERCISED TO INSURE 
AGAINST DIRECT ELECTRICAL CONTACT 
BETWEEN THESE POINTS. THEY MUST 
NOT BE SHORTED TOGETHER, NOR TO 
THE HEATSINK OF THE LM323. 



T 



APPLICATION 



UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 

DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES 

TOLERANCES ON: 

FRACTIONS = H/16 .» = ±.l 
ANGLES - ±l" ax - ± 03 

SURFACE FINISH v — ^.xxi = i .01 




DRA*M BY 



R.WAYNE 4-2-76 



DESItiN l-NCINEtR 

S- W QgN IAK 3-IQ-76 

PROJECT ENGINEER 

S.JOBS 3H0-76 



DOCUMENT CONTROL 



o 

ol 



APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY 



TITLE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 

APPLE ~1 

POWER SUPPLY 



SIZF DRAWING NO 



00101 



SHEET n OF 



a^-^a 



2 



If more than one source for RDY 
use open— collector gate 740(1 (not ^0^) 

" — ;^F> 

(Slow ROM ! T_^ 
address decoded) 



RUN 



■» (rdy^ 




SLOW ROM 



< SYNC| J7474 { 



R Q ^^St — * Hd 




needed only 
for single 
INST R mode 

SINGLE CYCLE 

(NOTE: Features not needed may be omitted) 



SINGLE STEP FOR 6502 



ADDRESS DISPLAY 



Al 



A2 



A3 



A4 



A5 



Ae/0 



A7/1 



A8/2 



A9/3 



A10/4 



All/5 



A12 



A13 



A14 



A15 



CsYNCf - 



74174 

Ql 
Q2 
Q3 
Q4 
Q5 
CL 



CL 

Ql 
Q2 
Q3 
Q4 
Q5 
74174 



CL 

D0 QCI 

Dl Ql 

D2 Q2 

D3 Q3 

D5 Q5 
74174 



100 



100 



100 



■AAAr- 



100 



100 



100 



-VSAr- 



100 



100 



100 



-wv- 



100 



100 



AAA*- 



100 



-Vs^r 



100 



100 



100 



■AAAr 



100 



100 



JVSAr 



A0 



Al 



A2 



^ 



e 



A3 



A4 



^ 



e 



A5 



^ 



e 



A6 



A7 



A8 



^ 



e 



A9 



A10 



e 



^ 



All 



^ 



e 



A12 



A13 



A14 



B 



@- 



A15 



^ 



e 



SYNC 



^ 



-12- 



The Apple Computer Company hereby warrants each of 
its products, and all components therein contained, to be free 
from defects in materials and/or workmanship for a period of 
thirty (30) days from date of purchase. In the event of the occur- 
rence of malfunction, or other indication of failure attributable 
directly to faulty workmanship and/or material, then, upon re- 
turn of the product to the Apple Comiputer Company, at 770 Welch 
Road, Palo Alto, California, 94304 (postage prepaid), the Apple 
Computer Company will, at its option, repair or replace said 
products or components thereof, to what ever extent Apple Com- 
puter Company shall deem necessary, to restore said product 
to proper operating condition. All such repairs or replacements 
shall be rendered by the Apple Computer Company, without 
charge to the customer. 

The responsibility for the failure of any Apple Computer 
product, or component thereof, which, at the discretion of the 
Apple Computer Company, shall have resulted either directly or 
indirectly from accident, abuse, or misapplication of the product, 
shall be assumed by the customer, and the Apple Computer Com- 
pany shall assume no liability as a consequence of such events 
under the terms of this warranty. 

While every effort, on the part of Apple Computer Com- 
pany, is made to provide clear and accurate technical instruction 
on the use, implementation, and application of its products, the 
Apple Computer Company shall assume no liability in events which 
may arise from the application of such technical instruction, nor 
shall the Apple Comiputer Company be held liable for the quality, 
interconnection, or application of periferal products, which may 
have been recommended by Apple Computer Company, but which 
have not been supplied as part of the product. 



This warranty contains and embodies the limits of re- 
sponsibility of the Apple Computer Company, with regard to its 
products, and no other liability is expressed, implied, or should 
be assumed by the purchaser, and in no event shall the Apple 
Computer Company be held liable for the loss of time, effort, 
or transportation costs, nor for loss of potential profits or other 
consequential losses which might arise f rotn the purchase, assem- 
bly, use, application, or subsequent sale of the products of Apple 
Computer Company, nor from any instructions and /or technical 
information thereto related. 



8 



i 



(CHAR RATE) 



-i nr-j. ri; 



f 

[cla] 



PI P3 PO P2 

D6 
74160 



MEM (2f— — ♦ 



&- 



CIOVJO 



VBL 



a 



r~n 



PO P3 Q3 

CEP 

D7 

GET 74161 



PE Ql Q2 QO PI P2 
|4 J5 



rr^ 



UNE0' 



?a' t^ t^ !^ 




MR PO PI P2 P3 

Cp CEP 
^^ D8 

74161 TC 



QO Ql Q 



(HBU 





(LINE 7) 



f-ir/B2 i. 



.Ojjf-p F p -y-i.Opf 



(CHAR RATE) 




-^^Op^ I^CR- 



LAST H- 



n 



CPE 



10 ^ 



DM 
CEP 74161 



GET 
Q3 



DI5 Ql 
74161 



CEP 

GET 



n 



(DOT RATE) 



t 



E ^- 
F 



74166 

IN 



CL2 
A 



— " — •<; 



i[l4___|l5 



VINH J. 



3 n. 



6 ^'2 



MR PO PI P3 CP 

CEP TC 

D9 
GET 74161 P2 

PE QO Q3 Q2 Ql 



r 



V4 



9 flO 



'LAST 



"1 



WCl 



VBL*^0<^^ 



*— — VBL 



Al A2 A3 
V6G 



05 D2 A6 

2513 

GND A7 



'4 



RC 
VGG 



01. 
02 
03 C3 

2519 

04 
05 
06 



LINE0 



CMb 

2504 



03 04 
l/ci2 




D5b 
2504 



2' 



kzE) 



'K^ 



D5a 
2504 



R3 3000 



(-5VH — WV 

I — ^AA/ — <' 



R4 3000 






C4 
Ol^jf 




2b 



^ 



C4 EP-»CLR 

74157 



•WRITE 



RD3 
RD4 



R5 3000 



f-5V yl— AAA/ ^' 



D4b 

2504 




D4a 
2504 



IMTIAI^i.nd DATt 



RELEASED FOR PRODUCTION 



^^'^V Uy 



J^ 



NOTES; UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:- 

1. ALL OUTPUTS OF C3, 2519 (PINS 7 THRU 12), ARE PROVIDED 
WITH "PULL-DOWN" RESISTORS, 7500 OHMS EACH, TO -12V. 

2. INTERCONNEC TIONS BE TWEEN SCHEMATIC SECTIONS ARE 
INDICATED BY I [ AREAS. 

3. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1 /4W, 5%. 

4. ALL CAPACITOR VALUES ARE IN MICROFARADS. 

5. ALL DIODES ARE TYPE 1N914, 
ALL GATES ARE 74' SERIES DEVICES. 
(See additional notes, sheet 2/3) 



04 03 



DI4; 
2504 



& 



k 



DI4g 
2504 




B 



3000 



NOTICE TO ALL PERSONS 
RECEIVING THIS DRAWING: 
This drawing is only conditionally 
issued, and neither receipt nor 
possession thereof confers or 
transfers any right in, or license 



to use, the subject matter of the by Apple Computer, No right to 



arawmg or any design or technical reproduce this document, or any 

information shown thereon, nor part thereof, nor to make use of 

any right to reproduce this draw- any information contained herein 

mg orany part thereof, except for is granted, except by written a- 

manufacture by vendors of Apple greement with, or license by, the 

Computer, under written license Apple Computer Company. 



8 



6 



5 



T 



:REF; 



00100 



UNLESS OTHERWrSf SPECIFIED 

DIMENSrONS ARE IN INCHES 

TOLERANCES OS 



FRACTIONS = 111 
ANCLES = il' 
SURFACE FINISH i 



R.WAYNE 



4-2-76 



DOCI. MhN7 CONTROI 



APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 

APPLE - 1 

TERMINAL SECTION 



00101 



1 "3 



8 



6 



i 



1 



& 




H S "S fw 



B7 

74157/74S257 

t" 



5*0' iifii .to 



T 



o 



NOTE? 
"6502 ' 



p-^iiv) 




>:|B7B685B4B3B2B1 ,| ~ 



B 



74157/74S257 




ioi44 




MOS TECHNOLOGY 

6502 



MICROPROCESSOR 



illig 



,*",P? ?i 



Oi CO t- <S> 



JUMPER FOR 
NO DMA 

NOTE 13 



74157/ 
74s257 






9 2D 
■^f 



-»I1A 
6 
-*I1B 



74S257 



R25 
3K 



<55) 



in 1 ■ _' r iLJi r t&' F M f 5- 



NOTE 8 _;■;'_ _;' 



74154 



r^ 

"k 



MK4096 (orequi 

RAM 



(CAS) 



A2 
NOTE II 



O U> -> h- w 

< < < <J < 



(NOTE 121 UNRE6UUATED ,3^ _r 



rx 



1^ 



1 

4 
i 



^14 



DOJ- 



E 



Ai5 
Id 



^14 



A|3 



AI2 



Sl4 



i 

-1 



14 



Sl4 



Bl2 



DI 
=Pli4 



a 



3©^ 



<EE) 



^^ 



# 



DRSCRiPTION 



RELEASED FOR PRODUCTION 



ITJALS and RATt 



EJ 




NOTES: {continued from sheet 1/3) 

7. UNIT, AS SUPPLIED, IN- 
CLUDES A 6502 MICRO- 
PROCESSOR. AND SOLDER 
JUMPERS AT BOTH POINTS 
MARKED "6502", AND HAS 
OMITTED ALL COMPON- 
ENTS SHOWN WITHIN THE 
DOTTED BOX. IF A 6800 

IS SUBSTITUTED FOR THE 
6502 IT IS NECESSARY TO 
INSTALL ALL COMPON- 
ENTS SHOWN, AND TO 
BREAK BOTH SOLDER 
BRIDGES NOTED "6502". 

8. UNIT IS SUPPLIED WITH: 

Y Jumpered to CSF 

Z Jumpered to CSD 

W Jumpered to CSl and 

X Jumpered to CS(J. 

R, S, and T, ARE USER 

SELECTABLE CHIP 

SELECTS. (4K BLOCKS) 

9. KYBD & DSP ARE INTER- 
RUPT OUTPUTS FROM PIA. 
POINTS LABELED "IRQ", 
"NMI" ARE INTERRUPT 
INPUTS FROM MICRO- 
PROCESSOR. FOR NOR- 
MAL OPERATION NO 
JUMPERS ARE REQUIRED. 

10. KEYBOARD SOCKET, (B4), 
PIN 15, (BIT 8), SHOULD 
BE JUMPERED TO Vcc 

(+ 5V), FOR NORMAL 
OPERATION WITH 
SUPPLIED SOFTWARE. 

11. PROMS ARE 256 X 4, AND 
MAY BE ONE OF THE 
FOLLOWING TYPES: 
SIGNETICS 82S129, 
HARRIS H1024, 
INTEL/MMI 3601. 

12. VOLTAGES (+12, -12) ON 
EDGE CONNECTOR ARE 
UNREGULATED, FILTERED 
D. C. . AND SHOULD NOT 
BE USED WITHOUT ADDED 
REGULATION. 

13. IF DMA REQUIRED, BREAK 
JUMPER SHOWN. USE 74S257 
AT POSITIONS B5, B6, B7, 
AND B8. (AS SUPPLIED) 



B 



01 



NOTICE TO ALL PERSONS 
RECEIVING THIS DRAWING: 
This drawing is only conditionally- 
issued, and neither receipt nor 
possession thereof confers or 
transfers any right in, or license 



drawing or any design or technical 
information shown thereon, nor 
any right to reproduce this draw- 
ing oranypart thereof, except for 
manufacture by vendors of Apple 
Computer, under written license 



reproduce this document, or any 
part thereof, nor to make use of 
any information herein contained 
is granted, except by written a- 
greement with, or license by, the 
Apple Cornputer Company. 



to use, the subject matter of the by Apple Computer. No right to 



8 



6 



5 



T 











-REF- 


00100 


NEXT ASSY 


USED ON 



APPLICATION 



fNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 

DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES 

TOLERANCES ON 

FRACTIONS- *1 '16 .1 = i.l 
ANCLES, tl" jv . ± ,03 

SURFACE FINISH v^ jix!< = * 01 



DRAVk'N BY 

R.WAYNE 



DATL 

4-2-76 



DESIGN ENGINEER 

SWOZNIAK 3-10-76 



PROJttT ENGINEER 

S JOBS 3-10-761 



DOrUMEM CONTROL 



APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 

APPLE -1 

PROCESSOR SECTION 



SIZI- DRAWING NO. 



00101 



2 "'3